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Studies: AMBLYOPIA and DiagnosticGame



1.  Hofeldt, TS, Hofeldt, AJ: BJO 1999 (see Link)


Topic: "Color Rivalry with Brightness Measurement"

·    24 Amblyopes 0.3 to 1.8 log defects

·    Amblyopic defect related to vision loss, p<0.0001

2.  Gise, R Kane SA.:  ARVO Paper #3819, 2016

Topic: "iPad Rivalrous Program in Amblyopia"

·    16 Amblyopes, all detected

·    16 Normal subjects, no false positive

·    Amblyopic defect related to vision loss, p<0.0001 (r=0.85, p<0.0001)

3.  Kane SA.: 2016, Unpublished to date.
Topic: "iPad Screening Program for Amblyopia"

·    211 students studied, Ages 3 to 14 years of age

·    Summary

Of the 210 children tested, there are 208 true negative, 2 true positives, zero false negative, and zero false positive.  The true positives are (1) an 8 year old undergoing treatment for amblyopia with current acuities of 20/20 OD and 20/25 OS and (2) one amblyope was detected, a 10 year old having 20/20 OD and 20/40 OS.  Of the true negatives, one child is a successfully treated amblyope having 20/20 vision in each eye; repeated inter-ocular brightness test results are 0.3 OD defect, 0.3 OS defect, and zero defect.  The sensitivity is 100% for detecting amblyopia in the 210 children. A 4-year-old child who did not understand brightness could not tested.  

4.  Kane, SA iPad Screening of Elementary School Students with the DiagnosticGame app, 2017, active IRB study




     Comparison to HRR AO PLATES

·    4 Abnormal both methods (Red-Green Deficiency)

·    285 Normal both methods



    Comparison to Titmus

·    The P-Value is 0.000179

·    The result is significant at p < 0.05.

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